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Face Lift and Eye Lid Surgery: A Career Investment

Jun 16, 2019

Recently an article crossed my desk describing how a 45-50 year old male attorney began hearing remarks from his colleagues that he looked tired. Even though his suit was meticulous, starched collar and silk tie – he felt great but his facial appearance had begun to wane.

Consider this: A tall, shapely woman confidently dressed in form-fitting leotards and tights working out in her favorite spa. From the back view she looks like a 20 something – nothing jiggles – her waist, tummy, and thighs all in proportion. But as she turns, you see the tired, stressed out face of a definitely 40ish or older woman desperately trying to hold on to her youth.

This scenario represents the graying of the Baby Boomers; they see aging faces developing right before their eyes and they feel helpless thinking that they, too, may have to succumb to a surgical procedure to maintain the look of health and youthfulness as a career investment.

Will they need a mini-lift? Eye lid surgery? Liposuction on their chin and neck? Not so long ago, “nips and tucks” were quiet affairs and only available to celebrities and business moguls’ wives; today plastic surgery is becoming mainstream as more and more financing options become available. Business execs, sales people, secretaries, practically every one over the age of 20 realize that their facial appearance speaks volumes about themselves: Furrowed brows: angry and explosive. Down Turned Mouth Corners: looks sad, maybe depressed Double Chin & Jowls: Looks old – old ideas.

Surgical procedures are risky. There is not one procedure performed under the guise of plastic surgery that is risk-free. Not only does a patient risk infection from an invasive procedure; scarring and loss of sensation are also a concern. There have been cases where people have suffered brain damage from anesthesia and some have died.

At what point is seeking improvement detrimental? With so many procedures available, one has to ask if the medical community has slipped into an “assembly line” status.

These very serious surgeries may disfigure one’s face and body as witnessed in many recent television shows portraying botched procedures. Noses, breasts, chins implants, liposuction nightmares and faces that look distorted cost someone a lot of cash and emotional anguish.

Imagine, paying hard earned money for a look that you may not embrace and maybe paying more to correct something that may need to be tweaked. Once tissue has been cut and sutured, it is never the same. Susan Sarandon, in a rare moment of candor, expressed succinctly to Ellen DeGeneres, “I’m scared of plastic surgery. You’re somewhere between a burn victim and a female impersonator, and then there’s a kind of an Asian thing going on.”

What if the procedure goes smoothly; there are no problems and the patient is satisfied with the new look? How long will this investment last? Most facial plastic surgery procedures, especially injections, will have to be repeated again and again. Imagine facing another surgery – anesthesia and more cutting can eventually disfigure a face. The average surgical procedure is $20,000. Multiple expenditures can quickly add up to staggering amounts.

More and more people are opting for non-surgical methods of facial rejuvenation; in fact, just as isometric and resistance type exercise works to reshape the body, facial exercise can significantly reverse the look of aging in every face. Here’s how: As we age, muscles in the face slowly relax and as they relax your skin begins to follow the downward motion. Jowls and little pouches form on the jaw line, the eyelids begin to fold and a visible line develops in your cheeks between your nose and mouth.

Unlike the major muscles in the body, the facial muscles are small; in some areas they weave over and under each other, and they attach at only one end to a bone. This means they cannot contract without an artificial anchor – in our arms and legs, we have joints that act as anchors so that we can tense our muscles with contractions. In order to contract the facial muscles so they tone, tighten and lift they must be held or anchored. This action provides increased circulation and oxygenation. This means that contortions – movements without resistance – will not contour the face and neck. Resistance exercise lifts your face from the inside out.

Using double eyelid surgery will reshape and lift your face. These exercises create stronger, more resilient muscles and facial skin will tighten preventing further sagging. The jowls will lift, eyes will open and look vibrant and the “apples” in your cheeks will return. With double eyelid surgery, you can look younger and people will recognize you even if you haven’t seen them in twenty years because you will still look like you.

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Fundamentals of Semiconductor C-V Measurements

Jun 16, 2019

Capacitance-voltage (C-V) testing is widely used to determine semiconductor parameters, particularly in MOSCAP and mosfets structures. However, other types of semiconductor devices and technologies can also be characterized with C-V measurements, including bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), JFETs, III-V compound devices, photovoltaic cells, MEMs devices, organic TFT displays, photodiodes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and many others.

The fundamental nature of these measurements makes them useful in a wide range of applications and disciplines. They are used in the research labs of universities and semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate new materials, processes, devices, and circuits. C-V measurements are extremely important to product and yield enhancement engineers, who are responsible for improving processes and device performance. Reliability engineers use these measurements to qualify material suppliers, monitor process parameters, and analyze failure mechanisms.

With appropriate methodologies, instrumentation, and software, a multitude of semiconductor device and material parameters can be derived. This information is used all along the production chain beginning with evaluation of epitaxially grown crystals, including parameters such as average doping concentration, doping profiles, and carrier lifetimes. In wafer processes, C-V measurements can reveal oxide thickness, oxide charges, mobile ions (contamination), and interface trap density. These measurements continue to be used after other process steps, such as lithography, etching, cleaning, dielectric and polysilicon depositions, and metallization. After devices are fully fabricated on the wafer, C-V is used to characterize threshold voltages and other parameters during reliability and basic device testing and to model the performance of these devices.

The instrumentation software should include ready-to-run test routines that do not require user programming. These should be available for the most widely used device technologies and test regimens, which were mentioned in the first three paragraphs of this article. Some researchers may also be interested in less common tests, such as performing both a C V and C f sweep on a Metal Insulator Metal (MIM) capacitor, measuring small interconnect capacitance on a wafer, or doing a C V sweep on a two-terminal nanowire device. The parameter extractions should be easily obtained, with automated curve plotting.

Often, engineers and researchers are expected to perform C-V measurements with little experience and training on the instrumentation. A mosfets with an intuitive user interface and easy-to-use features makes this practical. That includes simple test setup, sequence control, and data analysis. Otherwise, the user spends more time learning the system than collecting and using the data.


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